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Can nature protect us?

How do we protect nature?   It’s a longstanding question of conservation, maybe even the question of conservation.  But I’d like to see it reversed.  How does nature protect us? Turning the traditional line of thinking around offers a new perspective on our relationship with the natural world, and reveals some hope for the biggest challenge facing humans today – climate change.

Consider the world’s low-lying coastal regions such as Pemba Island, Tanzania and CFI’s hometown of Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada.  These areas are now at high risk of sea level rise and severe storm surge linked to a changing climate.  How do we protect threatened coastal communities from an encroaching ocean?  It’s a daunting question, but as it turns out natural systems already hold many of the answers.

Coral reef, mangrove forest, and salt marsh ecosystems are nature’s defenses against storm surge.  Study shows that coral reefs reduce more than 85% of wave energy [1] and mangrove forests reduce water level surges by up to half a meter for every kilometer of their width [2].  As for salt marshes, ongoing research at the University of Cambridge recently revealed that over a distance of 40 meters salt marsh reduced the height of large waves by 18% [3].

Magrove planting - Pemba Island, Tanzania

 

Engineering and constructing artificial barriers to provide the same level of protection as coral reefs, mangroves, and salt marshes is possible, but requires vast amounts of capital and infrastructure.  And unlike artificial infrastructure, which begins to degrade the moment it is constructed and requires continued investment and upkeep for its entire service life, living infrastructure is self-maintaining and naturally accrues greater and greater value over time. In those coastal communities fortunate to have such intact natural infrastructure, nature is already providing critical protection against climate change.  In areas where these ecosystems have been destroyed or heavily degraded, restoring the natural ecology may be the best line of defense going forward.

From the ozone layer to the water cycle natural systems have always protected us.  In a changing climate, natural systems now provide hope for our successful adaptation.  Can nature protect us? It's trying - we've just got to start working with it . . . Can we restore land while growing food?  

 

- Daimen

 

[1] World Risk Report 2012 Focus: Environmental Degradation and Disasters. Alliance Development Works. pp. 34. 

[2] Storm surge reduction by mangroves. Natural Coastal Protection Series: Report 2. McIvor, A.L., Spencer, T., Möller, I. and Spalding. M. (2012) Cambridge Coastal Research Unit Working Paper 41. Published by The Nature Conservancy and Wetlands International. 35 pages. ISSN 2050-7941. pp.3.

[3] Wave attenuation over coastal salt marshes under storm surge conditions. Iris Möller, Matthias Kudella, Franziska Rupprecht, Tom Spencer, Maike Paul, Bregje K. van Wesenbeeck, Guido Wolters, Kai Jensen, Tjeerd J. Bouma, Martin Miranda-Lange & Stefan Schimmels. Nature Geoscience 7, 727–731 (2014).

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